Some manufacturers provide a "dry" or empty weight for trailers; however, to select a proper tow vehicle and hitching system, you must know how much your trailer weighs fully loaded. For example, if you are towing an open trailer that carries a boat or motorcycle, the fully loaded weight includes the weight of the trailer with the boat or motorcycle and any additional items being towed, such as fuel tanks, motors, and safety equipment.
Develop a realistic estimate of the total weight of your trailer. The time you spend doing this and getting properly equipped will save you time and money in preventing unexpected repairs to your tow vehicle and unanticipated breakdowns while on the road. In addition to speaking with dealers and other individuals who sell and use trailers, the best way to know the actual weight of your trailer is to weigh it at a public scale.
Manufacturers consider the loaded weight of a trailer when specifying tongue weight-the amount of the trailer's weight that presses down on the trailer hitch. Too little tongue weight can cause the trailer to sway. Too much tongue weight can cause many problems, including not enough weight on the front wheels of the tow vehicle. When this occurs, the tow vehicle will be less responsive to steering. A weight-distributing hitch can remedy this problem by transferring weight to the front axle of the tow vehicle.
Manufacturers also establish the gross axle weight and provide a rating that denotes the maximum weight a single axle can carry. Knowing these weights will help you when it is time to load your trailer. Remember that the gross axle weight rating listed on the tow vehicle's certification label must not be exceeded.